JAMB/UTME syllabus for chemistry

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  Note: This syllabus is being updated from time to time.


Why do I need jamb/utme syllabus for chemistry

   You  need this syllabus for to be able to efficiently prepare for chemistry in jamb, this syllabus allows you to know what topics that you should read, when preparing for chemistry in jamb.

What is the aim of UTME syllabus in chemistry ?

   The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is to
prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the
course objectives, which are to:
(i) apply the basic principles governing scientific methods in new situations;
(ii) interpret scientific data;
(iii) deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv) apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

 Topics/Content

   1. Separation of mixtures and
 purification of chemical
 substances
(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
 evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,
sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper
and column chromatography, simple and
fractional crystallization.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between pure and impure
substances;
(ii) use boiling and melting points as criteria for
purity of chemical substances;
(iii) distinguish between elements, compounds and
mixture;
(iv) differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
(v) identify the properties of the components of a
mixture;
(vi) specify the principle involved in each separation
method.

 Topics/Contents

   2. Chemical combination
Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple
proportions, law of conservation of matter,
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,
Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,
equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
 based on 12C=12, the mole concept and
Avogadro’s number.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) perform simple calculations involving formulae,
equations/chemical composition and the mole
concept;
(ii) deduce the chemical laws from given
expressions/statements;
(iii) interpret data based on these laws;
(iv) interpret graphical representations related
 to these laws.

 Topics/Contents

   3.Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws
(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter,
melting, vapourization and reverse processes;
melting and boiling explained in terms of
molecular motion and Brownian movement.
(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and
Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined
gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.

 Objective

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids,
liquids and gases;
(ii) deduce reasons for change of state;
(iii) draw inferences based on molecular motion;
(iv) deduce chemical laws form given expressions/statements;
(v) interpret graphical representations related to
these laws;
(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws
and the relationship between the vapour density
of gases and the relative molecular mass.

 Topics/Content

  4.Atomic structure and bonding
(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,
the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,
Mosely, Thompson and Bohr. Simple
hydrogen spectrum, Ionization of gases
illustrating the electron as fundamental
particle of matter.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,
atomic number, mass number and isotopes;
specific examples should be drawn from
elements of atomic number 1 to 20. Shapes
of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of
elements, presentation of the periodic table
with a view to recognizing families of
elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the
noble gases and transition metals. The
variation of the following properties should
be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii,
electron affinity and electronegativity.
(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron
configuration of elements and their tendency
to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen
bonding and metallic bonding as special
types of electrovalency and covalency
respectively; coordinate bond as a type
of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes
like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+
and [Ag(NH3)2]+
; van der Waals’ forces
should be mentioned as a special type of
bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear (H2, 02,
Cl2,HCI and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and
tetrahedral; (CH4)
(b) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity
 (elementary treatment only)
 (ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple
 equations, uses and
 applications of natural and
 artificial radioactivity.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between atom, molecules and ions;
(ii) assess the contributions of these scientists to
 the development of the atomic structure;
(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and
 electrons from atomic and mass numbers of
 an atom;
(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of
 electrons in an atom;
(v) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vi) perform simple calculations on relative
 atomic mass
(vii) determine the number of electrons in s and
 p atomic orbitals.
(viii) relate atomic number to the position of an
 element on the periodic table;
(ix) relate properties of groups of elements on the
periodic table;
(x) identify reasons for variation in properties
 across the period.
(xi) differentiate between the different types
 of bonding.
(xii) deduce bond types based on electron
 configurations;
(xiii) relate the nature of bonding to properties
 of compounds;
(xiv) apply it in everyday chemistry;
(xv) differentiate between the various shapes
 of molecules
(xvi) distinguish between ordinary chemical
 reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xvii) differentiate between natural and
 artificial radioactivity;
(xviii) compare the properties of the different
 types of nuclear radiations;
(xix) compute simple calculations on the
 half-life of a radioactive material;
(xx) balance simple nuclear equation;
(xxi) identify the various applications of
 radioactivity.

  Topics/Contents

   5. Air
 The usual gaseous constituents
 – nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon
(IV) oxide and the noble
gases (argon and neon), proportion
of oxygen in the air e.g. by burning
phosphorus or by using alkaline pyrogallol,
air as a mixture and some uses of the noble
gas.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) deduce reason(s) for the existence of
 air as a mixture;
(ii) identify the principle involved in the
 separation of air components;
(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the
 composition of air in the environment;
(iv) specify the uses of some of the
 constituents of air.

 Topics/Contents

    6. Water
Composition by volume:
Water as a solvent, atmospheric
gases dissolved in water and their biological
significance. Water as a product of the
combustion of hydrogen.
Hard and soft water:
 Temporary and permanent
 hardness and methods of softening
 hard water. Purification of town
 water supplies. Water of
 crystallization, efflorescence,
 deliquescence and hygroscopy.
 Examples of the substances exhibiting these
properties and their uses.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various uses of water;
(ii) distinguish between the properties of hard and
soft water;
 (iii) determine the causes of hardness;
 (iv) identify methods of removal of hardness;
 (v) describe the processes involved in the
 purification of water for town supply;
 (vi) distinguish between these phenomena;
 (vii) identify the various compounds that exhibit
these phenomena.

 Topics/Contents

   7. Solubility
 (a) Unsaturated, saturated
 and supersaturated solutions.
 Solubility curves and simple
 deductions from them,
 (solubility defined in terms of
 mole per dm3) and simple
 calculations.
(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
 and the use of such solvents
 for the removal of stains.
 (c) Suspensions and colloids:
 Harmattan haze and paints as
 examples of suspensions and
 fog, milk, aerosol spray and
 rubber solution as examples
 of colloids.

  Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the different types of
 solutions;
(ii) interpret solubility curves;
(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can
 dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a
 given temperature;
(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
(v) classify solvents based on their uses;
(vi) differentiate between a true solution,
 suspension and colloids;
(vii) compare the properties of a true solution
 and a ‘false’ solution.
(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions
 and colloids.

 Topics/Contents

   8. Environmental Pollution
(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
 (b) Air pollution:
 Examples of air pollutants such as
 H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
 fluorocarbons and dust.
 (c) Water pollution
 Sewage and oil pollution should be
 known.
(d) Soil pollution:
 Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
 non-biodegradable pollutants.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the different types of pollution and
 pollutants;
(ii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and
 non-biodegradable;
(iii) assess the effects of pollution on the
 environment;
(iv) recommend measures for control of environmental pollution.

 Topics/Contents

   9. Acids, bases and salts
 (a) General characteristics and properties of
acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,
basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic and
 double salts. An acid defined as a substance
whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+
ions
or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and
tartaric acids as examples of naturally
occurring organic acids, alums as examples
 of double salts, preparation of salts by
neutralization, precipitation and action of
acids on metals. Oxides and
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
 conductances of molar solutions of
 strong and weak acids and bases,
 relationship between conductance,
 amount of ions present and their relative
mobilities.
(c) pH and pOH scale.
 pH defined as – log[H3O+]
 (d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts:
 Simple examples such as
 NH4C1, AICI3, Na2CO3, CH3COONa to be
 mentioned.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the properties of
 acids and bases;
(ii) identify the different types of acids
 and bases;
(iii) differentiate between acidity and
 alkalinity using acid/base indicators;
(iv) identify the various methods of
 preparation of salts;
(v) classify different types of salts;
vi) relate degree of dissociation to strength
 of acids and bases;
(vii) relate degree of dissociation to
 conductance;
(viii) perform simple calculations on pH;
(ix) identify the appropriate acid-base
 indicator;
(x) interpret graphical representation of
 titration curves;
(xi) perform simple calculations based on
 the mole concept;
(xii) balance equations for the hydrolysis
 of salts;
(xiii) deduce the properties (acidic, basic,
 neutral) of the resultant solution.

 Topics/Contents

   10. Oxidation and reduction
 (a) Oxidation in terms of the
 addition of oxygen or removal
 of hydrogen.
 (b) Reduction as removal of oxygen
 or addition of hydrogen.
 (c) Oxidation and reduction in terms
 of electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers.
 Oxidation and reduction treated
 as change in oxidation.
number and use of oxidation numbers
in balancing simple equations.
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic
compounds.
 (e) Tests for oxidizing and reducing
 agents.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various forms of expressing
 oxidation and reduction;
(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms of
 oxidation or reduction;
(iii) balance redox reaction equations;
(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemical
 species;
(v) compute the number of electron transfer
 in redox reactions;
(vi) identify the name of redox species using
 IUPAC nomenclature.
(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing
 agents in redox reaction.

 Topics/Contents

  11. Electrolysis
(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
 Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4,
 aqueous CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute
 and concentrated NaC1 solutions and fused
NaC1 and factors affecting discharge
 of ions at the electrodes.
(c) Uses of electrolysis:
 Purification of metals e.g.
 copper and production of
 elements and compounds
 e.g. A1, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH.
(d) Electrochemical cells:
 Redox series (K, Na, Ca, Mg,
 AI, Zn, Fe, PbII, H, Cu, Hg, Au,)
 half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.
Simple calculations only.
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
 cathodic protection of metals,
 painting, electroplating and coating
 with grease or oil as ways of
 preventing iron from corrosion.

 Topics/Contents

  12. Energy changes
(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical
 and chemical changes:
 dissolution of substances in or
 reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
 K, NH4, Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and
exothermic (-∆H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
 phenomenon: simple illustrations
 like mixing of gases and dissolution
 of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
 ∆GΦ= 0 as a criteria for
 equilibrium, ∆G greater or
 less than zero as a criterion for
 non-spontaneity or spontaneity.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the types of heat changes
 (∆H) in physical and chemical processes;
(ii) interpret graphical representations of heat
 changes;
(iii) relate the physical state of a substance
 to the degree of orderliness;
(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity
 of a reaction ;
(v) relate (∆H), ∆H0
 and ∆G0
 as the driving
 forces for chemical reactions;
(vi) solve simple problems based on the
 relationships ∆G0
= ∆H0
 -T∆S0

 Topics/Contents

   13. Rates of Chemical Reaction 
(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors 
which can change the rate of a chemical 
reaction: 
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI
and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCI.
(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine 
clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure 
may be used as concentration term. 
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction 
 between marble and HCI with 
 marble in :
(i) powdered form 
(ii) lumps of the same mass. 
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition 
 of H2O2 or KCIO3 in the 
 presence or absence of MnO2.
(b) Concentration/time curves. 
(c) Activation energy.
 Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and the collision theory, effect of light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of 
alkanes.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to: 
(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of a 
chemical reaction; 
(ii) determine the effects of these factors on 
 the rate of reactions; 
(iii) recommend ways of moderating these effects; 
(iv) examine the effect of concentration on the 
 rate of a chemical reaction; 
(v) describe how the rate of a chemical 
 reaction is affected by surface area; 
(vi) determine the types of catalysts suitable for 
different reactions. 
 (vii) interpret reaction rate curves; 
(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions; 
(x) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theory of matter. 
(xi) examine the significance of activation energy to chemical reactions. 
 (xi) deduce the value of activation energy (Ea) from reaction rate curves.

 Topics/Contents

  14. Chemical equilibra 
Reversible reactions and factors governing the 
equilibrium position. Dynamic equilibrium. Le 
Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant. 
Simple examples to include action of steam on 
iron and N2O4.
No calculation will be required.

 Objectives

  Candidates should be able to: 
(i) identify the factors that affects the position of equilibrium of a chemical reaction; 
(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium.

 Topics/Contents

   15. Non-metals and their compounds 
 (a) Hydrogen: commercial production from 
water gas and cracking of petroleum 
fractions, laboratory preparation, 
properties, uses and test for hydrogen. 
 (b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative 
element of the halogen. Laboratory 
preparation, industrial preparation by 
electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water 
sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides. 
Hydrochloric acid preparation and properties.
Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
 (i) Oxygen:
 Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.
Commercial production from liquid air.
Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,
trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the
importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
 (ii) Sulphur:
 Uses and allotropes:
 preparation of allotropes is not expected .
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV)
oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.
Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the
effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate (IV),
Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid: Commercial
preparation (contact process only), properties as
a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating
agent and uses. Test for SO4 2-.
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties
as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating
agent. Test for S2-
(d) Nitrogen:
 (i) Laboratory preparation
 (ii) Production from liquid air
 (iii) Ammonia:
 Laboratory and industrial
 preparations (Haber Process only),
 properties and uses, ammonium salts
 and their uses, oxidation of
 ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
 oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
 acid.
 Test NH4+
 (iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
 Laboratory preparation
 from ammonia;
 properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
 action of heat and uses. Test for NO3-
 (v) Oxides of nitrogen: Properties.
The nitrogen cycle.
 (e) Carbon:
 (i) Allotropes: Uses and
 properties
 (ii) Carbon (IV) oxide-
 Laboratory preparation, properties
 and uses. Action of heat on
 trioxocarbonate
 (IV) salts and test for CO32-
 (iii) Carbon (II) oxide:
 Laboratory preparation, properties
 including its effect on blood;
 sources of carbon (II) oxide to
 include charcoal, fire and exhaust
 fumes.
 (iv) Coal: Different types, products
 obtained form destructive
 distillation of wood and coal.
 (v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
 Manufacture of synthetic gas and
 uses.

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and
 industrial preparation of these gases and
 their compounds.
(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their
 compounds.
(iii) compare the properties of these gases and
 their compounds.
(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its
 compounds;
(v) determine the specific test for each gas and its
 compounds.
(vi) determine specific tests for Cl, SO42-, S2, NH44+, NO3-, CO32-.
(vii) identify the allotrope oxygen;
(viii) determine the significance of ozone to
 our environment.
(ix) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their
 uses;
(x) specify the commercial preparation of
 the acid, its properties and uses;
(xi) predicts reagents for the laboratory preparation for the gas;
(xii) specify the laboratory and industrial
 preparation for the gas;
 (xiii) use Haber process for the industrial
 preparation of ammonia;
(xiv) identify reagents for the laboratory preparation
of the acid, its properties and uses
 (xv) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycle
 to the environment.
 (xvi) identify allotropes of carbon;
(xvii) predict reagents for the laboratory
 preparation of CO2;
(xviii) specify the properties of the gas and its uses;
(xiv) determine the test for CO2;
 (xx) determine the reagents for the
 laboratory preparation of the gas;
(xxi) examine its effect on human;
(xxii) identify the different forms of coal:
(xxiiii) determine their uses;
(xxiv) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.

 Topics/Contents

    16. Metals and their compounds
 (a) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
 (i) Sodium hydroxide:-
 Production by electrolysis of
 brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and
lead ions.
 Uses including precipitation of
 metallic hydroxides.
 (ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
 and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate
(IV): Production by Solvay process,
properties and uses, e.g.
 Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
 (iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
 sea water and uses, the economic
 importance of sea water and the
 recovery of sodium chloride.
 (b) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
 calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
 and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
 Properties and uses. Preparation of
 calcium oxide from sea shells, the
 chemical composition of cement
 and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.
(c) Aluminium
 Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of
aluminium and its compounds. Test
for A13+
 (d) Tin
 Extraction form its ores.
 Properties and uses.
 (e) Metals of the first transition series.
 Characteristic properties:
 (i) electron configuration
 (ii) oxidation states
 (iii) complex ion formation
 (iv) formationof coloured ions
 (f) Iron
 Extraction form sulphide and oxide
 ores, properties and uses,
 different forms of iron and their
 properties and advantages of steel
 over iron.
 Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+
 (g) Copper
 Extraction from sulphide and oxide
 ores, properties and uses of copper
 salts, preparation and uses of
 c o p p er ( I I ) tetraoxosulphate
 (VI). Test for Cu2+
 (h) Alloy
 Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type-
 metal, duralumin and soft solder
 (constituents and uses only).

 Objectives

   Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the method for extraction suitable
 for each metal;
(ii) relate the methods of extraction to the
 properties for the metals;
(iii) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(iv) specify the uses of the metals;
(v) determine specific test for metallic ions;
(vi) determine the process for the production
 of the compounds of these metals;
 (vii) compare the chemical reactivities of the compounds.
(viii) specify the uses of these compounds;
(ix) determine the processes for the
 preparation of the compounds of the
 metal;
(x) describe the method of purification
 of bauxite
(xi) relate the method of extraction to it properties;
(xii) specify the uses of tin;
(xiii) identify the general properties of the first
 transition metals;
(xiv) deduce reasons for the specific properties
 of the transition metals;
 (xv) determine the IUPAC names of simple
 transition metal complexes.
 (xvi) determine the suitable method of
 extraction for the metal;
 (xvii) specify the properties and uses of the
 metal;
(xviii) identify the appropriate method of
 extraction for the metal and its compounds;
 (xix) relate the properties of the metal and its
 compound to their uses.
(xx) specify the constituents and uses of the various
alloys mentioned.
(xxi) compare the properties and uses of alloys
 to pure metals.

 Topics/Contents

   17. Organic Compounds
 An introduction to the tetravalency of
 carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
 nomenclature and the determination of
 empirical formula of each class of the
 organic compounds mentioned below.
 (a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
 (i) Alkanes
 Homologous series in relation
 to physical properties,
 substitution reaction and a few
 examples and uses of halogenated
 products. Isomerism: structural
 only (examples on isomerism should not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional
distillation and major products;
cracking and reforming,
Petrochemicals – starting materials of
organic syntheses, quality of petrol
and meaning of octane number.
(ii) Alkenes
 Isomerism: structural and geometric
 isomerism, additional and
 polymerization reactions, polythene
 and synthetic rubber as examples of
 products of polymerization and its use
 in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
 Ethyne – production from action of
 water on carbides, simple reactions and
 properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
 Structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
 Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
 of ethanol by fermentation and from
 petroleum by-products. Local examples
 of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
 gin from palm wine and other local
 sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
 alkanol.
 Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a
 distinguishing test between primary,
secondary and tertiary alkanols.
(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
 Chemical test to distinguish between
 Alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
 Chemical reactions; neutralization and
 esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
 as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
 and benzene carboxylic acid as an
 example of an aromatic acid.
(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
Alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Saponification:
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary,
Secondary, tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and
polysaccharides, composition, chemical tests
for simple sugars and reaction with
concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.
Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose
form cotton and starch from cassava, the
uses of sugar and starch in the production of
alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and
textiles.
(i) Giant molecules e.g. proteins, enzymes,
 natural rubbers and polymers.

 Objectives

  Candidates should be able to:
(i) derive the name of organic compounds form their
 general formulae;
(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure;
(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability
 to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv) classify compounds according to their
 functional groups;
(v) derive empirical formula and molecular
formula, from given data;
(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specific properties;
(vii) derive various isomeric form from a given formula;
(viii) distinguish between the different types of isomerism;
(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbon;
(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbon by their properties;
(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture
 of hydrocarbon;
(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbon to their
 properties and uses;
(xiv) relate transformation processes to quality
 improvement of the fractions;
xv) distinguish between various
 polymerization processes;
(xvi) distinguish between aliphatic and
 aromatic hydrocarbons;
(xvii) relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xviii) compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xix) determine the processes involved in ethanol
 production;
(xx) examine the importance of ethanol as an
 alternative energy provider;
(xxi) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxii) compare the various classes of alkanoic
acid;
(xxiii) identify natural sources of alkanoates;
(xxiv) specify the uses of alkanoates;
(xxv) distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxvi) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxvii) identify the natural sources of carbohydrates
and giant molecules;
(xxviii) compare the various classes of
carbohydrates;
(xxix) infer the product of hydrolysis of
carbohydrates;
(xxx) determine the uses of carbohydrates;
 (xxxi) relate giant molecules to their uses.

   
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