**What is the aim of JAMB/UTME syllabus for physics?**

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to

prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the

course objectives, which are to:

(1) sustain their interest in physics;

(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;

(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;

(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and

concepts.

Read also : How to create jamb profile and get profile code

**Things that you should know about this Jamb syllabus for phyiscs **

•It is your compass in physics when preparing to sit for physics in jamb because it guides you on the topics to read and what you should know about the topics after reading them.

•Topics : These are the contents that you should read intensively, you can find them in the recommended textbooks by jamb.

•Objectives : These are what you should know or should be familiar with after using jamb syllabus for physics.

**Topics**

1. Measuremen

(a) Length area and volume:Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer

Screw-guage

(b) Mass

(i) unit of mass

(ii) use of simple beam balance

(c) Time

(i) unit of time

(ii) time-measuring devices

(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their

units

(i) Combinations of fundamental

quantities and determination of their

units

(f) Dimensions

(i) definition of dimensions

(ii) simple examples

(g) Limitations of experimental

measurements

(i) accuracy of measuring instruments

(ii) simple estimation of errors.

(iii) significant figures.

(iv) standard form.

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**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the units of length area and

volume;

ii. use different measuring instruments;

iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and

volume of regular and irregular bodies;

iv. identify the unit of mass;

v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s

balance and chemical balance;

vi. identify the unit of time;

vii. use different time-measuring devices;

viii. relate the fundamental physical quantities

to their units;

ix. deduce the units of derived physical

quantities;

x. Determine the dimensions of physical

quantities;

xi. use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;

xii. test the homogeneity of an equation;

xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring

instruments;

xiv. estimate simple errors;

xv. express measurements in standard form.

**Topics**

2. Scalars and Vectors

(i) definition of scalar and vector

quantities

(ii) examples of scalar and vector

quantities

(iii) relative velocity

(iv) resolution of vectors into two

perpendicular directions including

graphical methods of

solution.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between scalar and vector

quantities;

ii. give examples of scalar and vector

quantities;

iii. determine the resultant of two or more

vectors;

iv. determine relative velocity;

v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular

components;

vi. use graphical methods to solve vector

problems;

**Topics**

3. Motion

(a) Types of motion:

translational, oscillatory, rotational,

spin and

random

(b) linear motion

(i) speed, velocity and acceleration

(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated

motion

(iii) motion under gravity

(iv) distance-time graph and velocity

time graph

(v) instantaneous velocity and

acceleration.

(c) Projectiles:

(i) calculation of range, maximum

height and

time of fight

(ii) applications of projectile motion

(d) Newton’s laws of motion:

(i) inertia, mass and force

(ii) relationship between mass and

acceleration

(iii) impulse and momentum

(iv) conservation of linear momentum

(Coefficient of restitution not necessary)

(e) Motion in a circle:

(i) angular velocity and angular

acceleration

(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.

(iii) applications

(f) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):

(i) definition and explanation of simple

harmonic motion

(ii) examples of systems that execute

S.H.M

(iii) period frequency and amplitude of

S.H.M

(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M

(v) energy change in S.H.M

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to :

i. identify different types of motion ;

ii. differentiate between speed, velocity and

acceleration;

iii. deduce equations of uniformly accelerated

motion;

iv. solve problems of motion under gravity;

v. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time

graph;

vi. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration

vii. establish expressions for the range, maximum

height and time of flight of projectiles;

viii. solve problems involving projectile motion;

ix. interpret Newton’s laws of motion;

x. compare inertia, mass and force;

xi. deduce the relationship between mass and

acceleration;

xii. solve numerical problems involving impulse

and momentum;

xiii. interpret the law of conservation of linear

momentum;

xiv. establish expression for angular velocity,

angular acceleration and centripetal force;

xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in

a circle;

xvi. establish the relationship between period and

frequency;

xvii. analyse the energy changes occurring during

S.H.M

**Topics**

4 Gravitational field

(i) Newton’s law of universal

gravitation

(ii) gravitational potential

(iii) conservative and non-conservative

fields

(iv) acceleration due to gravity, g = GM/R

(iv) variation of g on the earth’s

surface

(v) distinction between mass and

weight

(vi) escape velocity

(vii) parking orbit and weightlessness

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the expression for gravitational force

between two bodies;

ii. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;

iii. give examples of conservative and non-

conservation fields;

iv. deduce the expression for gravitational field

potentials;

v. identify the causes of variation of g on the

earth’s surface;

vi. differentiate between mass and weight;

vii. determine escape velocity

**Topics**

5. Equilibrium of Forces

(a) equilibrium of a particles:

(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces

(ii) triangles and polygon of forces

(iii) Lami’s theorem

(b) principles of moments

(i) moment of a force

(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple

(torgue)

(iii) applications

(c) conditions for equilibrium of rigid

bodies under the action of parallel and

non-parallel forces

(i) resolution and composition of forces in

two perpendicular directions,

(ii) resultant and equilibrant

(d) centre of gravity and stability

(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of

coplanar force to solve problems;

ii. use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve

equilibrium problems;

iii. use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;

iv. analyse the principle of moment of a force;

v. determine moment of a force and couple;

vi. describe some applications of moment of a

force and couple;

vii. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid

bodies to solve problems;

viii. resolve forces into two perpendicular

directions;

ix. determine the resultant and equilibrant of

forces;

x. differentiate between stable, unstable and

neutral equilibrate.

**Topics**

6. Work Energy and Power

(i) definition of work, energy and power

(ii) forms of energy

(iii) conservation of energy

(iv) qualitative treatment between different

forms of energy

(v) interpretation of area under the force–distance curve

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between work, energy and power;

ii. compare different forms of energy, giving

examples;

iii. apply the principle of conservation of energy;

iv. examine the transformation between different

forms of energy;

v. interpret the area under the force–distance curve.

**Topics**

7. Friction

(i) static and dynamic friction

(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its

determination.

(iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction

(iv) reduction of friction

(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and

terminal viscosity.

(vi) stoke’s law.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction

ii. determine the coefficient of limiting friction;

iii. compare the advantages and disadvantage of

friction;

iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;

v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal

velocity;

vi. apply stoke’s law.

**Topics**

8. Simple Machines

(i) definition of machine

(ii) types of machines

(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and

efficiency of machines

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify different types of machines;

ii. solve problems involving simple machines.

**Topics**

9. Elasticity

(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point,

Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus

(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring

force

(iii) work done in springs and elastic strings

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret force-extension curves;

ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a

material;

iii use spring balance to measure force;

iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic

strings

**Topics**

10. Pressure

(a) Atmospheric Pressure

(i) definition of atmospheric pressure

(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units

(iii) measurement of pressure

(iv) simple mercury barometer,

aneroid barometer and manometer.

(v) variation of pressure with height

(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.

(b) Pressure in liquids

(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and

density (P = ρgh)

(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s

Principle)

(iii) application

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret force-extension curves;

ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a

material;

iii use spring balance to measure force;

iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic

strings

Candidates should be able to:

i. recognize the S.I units of pressure;

ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;

iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;

iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.

v. determine the relationship between pressure,

depth and density;

vi apply the principle of transmission of pressure

in liquids to solve problems;

vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid;

**Topics**

11. Liquids At Rest

(i) determination of density of solid and liquids

(ii) definition of relative density

(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid

(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation

and applications, e.g. ships and

hydrometers.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between density and relative density

of substances;

ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a

liquid;

iii. apply Archimedes’ principle and law of

floatation to solve problems.

**Topics**

12. Temperature and Its Measurement

(i) concept of temperature

(ii) thermometric properties

(iii) calibration of thermometers

(iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin.

(v) types of thermometers

(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to

another

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify thermometric properties of materials that

are used for different thermometers;

ii. calibrate thermometers;

iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g

Clesius and Kelvin.

iv. compare the types of thermometers;

vi. convert from one scale of temperature to

another.

**Topics**

13. Thermal Expansion

(a) Solids

(i) definition and determination of linear,

volume and area expansivities

(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in

building strips and railway lines

(iv) relationship between different

expansivities

(b) Liquids

(i) volume expansivity

(ii) real and apparent expansivities

(iii) determination of volume expansivity

(iv) anomalous expansion of water

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine linear and volume expansivities;

ii. assess the effects and applications of thermal

expansivities;

iii. determine the relationship between different

expansivities;

iv. determine volume, apparent, and real

expansivities of liquids;

v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.

**Topics**

14. Gas Laws

(i) Boyle’s law (PV = constant)

(ii) Charle’s law ( V/P = constant)

(iii) Pressure law ( P/T = constant )

(iv) absolute zero of temperature

(v) general gas equation ( PV/T= constant )

(vi) ideal gas equation (Pv = nRT)

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the gas laws;

ii. use expression of these laws to solve numerical

problems.

**Topics**

15. Quantity of Heat

(i) heat as a form of energy

(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific

heat capacity of solids and liquids

(iii) determination of heat capacity and

specific heat capacity of substances by

simple methods e.g method of mixtures

and electrical method

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific

heat capacity;

ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat

capacity using simple methods;

iii. examine some numerical problems.

**Topics**

16. Change of State

(i) latent heat

(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and

vaporization;

(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling

(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved

substances on boiling and melting points.

(v) application in appliances

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between latent heat and specific

latent heat of fusion and vaporization;

ii. differentiate between melting, evaporation and

boiling;

iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved

substance on boiling and melting points.

**Topics**

17. Vapours

(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours

(ii) relationship between saturated vapour

pressure (S.V.P) and boiling

(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube

method

(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain

(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative

humidity

(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of

the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb

hygrometers.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated

vapours;

ii. relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;

iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method;

iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and

relative humidity;

vi. estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using

wet and dry bulb hydrometers.

**Topics**

18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

(a) Molecular nature of matter

(i) atoms and molecules

(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian

motion, diffusion, surface tension,

capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles

of contact

(iii) examples and applications.

(b) Kinetic Theory

(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory

(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure

exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,

melting, boiling, vapourization, change in

temperature evaporation, etc.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between atoms and molecules;

ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian

motion , diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity,

adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;

iii. examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;

iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by

gases Boyle’s law, Charle’s law melting,

boiling vaporization, change in temperature,

evaporation, etc.

**Topics**

19. Heat Transfer

(i) conduction, convention and radiation as

modes of heat transfer

(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity

and heat flux

(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.

(iv) the conductivities of common materials.

(v) the thermos flask

(vii) land and sea breeze

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between conduction, convention and

radiation as modes of heat transfer;

ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux;

iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on

the energy radiated and absorbed by it;

iv. compare the conductivities of common

materials;

v. relate the component part of the working of the

thermos flask;

vi. differentiate between land and sea breeze.

**Topics**

20. Waves

(a) Production and Propagation

(i) wave motion,

(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves

(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer

(iv) distinction between particle motion and

wave motion

(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength

and wave velocity (V=f λ)

(vi) phase difference

(vii) progressive wave equation e.g

y = A sin 2π (vt + x)/λ

(b) Classification

(i) types of waves; mechanical and

electromagnetic waves

(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves

(iii) stationary and progressive waves

(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes,

stretched strings and the ripple tank.

(c) Characteristics/Properties

(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and

plane Polarization

(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret wave motion;

ii. identify vibrating systems as sources of waves;

iii use waves as a mode of energy transfer;

iv distinguish between particle motion and wave

motion;

v. relate frequency and wave length to wave

velocity;

vi. determine phase difference;

vii. use the progressive wave equation to compute

basic wave parameters;

viii. differentiate between mechanical and

electronmagnetic waves;

ix. differentiate between longitudinal and

transverse waves

x. distinguish between stationary and progressive

waves;

xi. indicate the example of waves generated from

springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple

tank;

xii. differentiate between reflection, refraction,

diffraction and plane polarization of waves;

xiii. analyse the principle of superposition of

waves.

**Topics**

21. Propagation of Sound Waves

(i) the necessity for a material medium

(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;

(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation

and their applications

(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberations

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the need for a material medium in the

propagation of sound waves;

ii. compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids

and air;

iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to

the speed of sound in air;

iv. solve problem on echoes, reverberation;

v. compare the disadvantages and echoes.

**Topics**

22. Characteristics of Sound Waves

(i) noise and musical notes

(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and

their application to musical instruments;

(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns

Fo= 1/2Lx√T/M

(iv) acoustic examples of resonance

(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns

in closed and open pipes in relation to

their lengths.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between noise and musical notes;

ii. analyse quality, pitch, intensity and loudness of

sound notes;

iii. evaluate the application of (ii) above in the construction of musical instruments;

iv. identify overtones by vibrating stings and air

columns;

v. itemize acoustical examples of resonance;

vi. determine the frequencies of notes emitted by

air columns in open and closed pipes in relation

to their lengths.

**Topics**

23. Light Energy

(a) Source of Light:

(i) natural and artificial source of light

(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects

(b) Propagation of light

(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of light

(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse

(iii) the pin-hole camera.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the natural and artificial sources of

light;

ii. differentiate between luminous and non

luminous objects;

iii. relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of

light;

iv. interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;

v. solve problems using the principle of operation

of a pin-hole camera.

**Topics**

24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved

Surfaces

(i) laws of reflection.

(ii) application of reflection of light

(iii) formation of images by plane, concave

and convex mirrors and ray diagrams

(iv) use of the mirror formula

1/f= 1/u+1/v

(v) linear magnification

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of reflection;

ii. illustrate the formation of images by plane,

concave and convex mirrors;

iii. apply the mirror formula to solve optical

problems;

iv. determine the linear magnification;

v. apply the laws of reflection of light to the

working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the

sextant.

**Topics**

25. Refraction of Light Through

(a) Plane and Curved Surface

(i) explanation of refraction in terms of

velocity of light in the media.

(ii) laws of refraction

(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium

(iv) determination of refractive index of glass

and liquid using Snell’s law

(v) real and apparent depth and lateral

displacement

(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection

(b) Glass Prism

(i) use of the minimum deviation formula u = sin[A+D/2]/sin[A/2]

(ii) type of lenses

(iii) use of lens formula 1/f=1/u+1/v

(iv) magnification

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of reflection;

ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid

using Snell’s law;

iii. determine the refractive index using the

principle of real and apparent depth;

iv. determine the conditions necessary for total

internal reflection;

v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars,

optical fibre;

vi. apply the principles of total internal reflection to

the formation of mirage;

vii. use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve

optical numerical problems;

viii. determine the magnification of an image;

ix. calculate the refractive index of a glass prism

using minimum deviation formula.

**Topics**

26. Optical Instruments

(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,

projectors, cameras and the human eye

(physiological details of the eye are not

required)

(ii) power of a lens

(iii) angular magnification

(iv) near and far points

(v) sight defects and their corrections

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the principles of operation of optical

instruments to solve problems;

ii. distinguish between the human eye and the

cameras;

iii. calculate the power of a lens;

iv. determine the angular magnification of optical

instruments;

v. determine the near and far points;

vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.

**Topics**

27. (a) dispersion of light and colours

(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular

prism

(ii) production of pure spectrum

(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction

(iv) colour of objects and colour filters

(b) electgromagnetic spectrum

(i) description of sources and uses of various

types of radiation.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the expression for gravitational force

between two bodies;

ii. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;

iii. identify primary colours and obtain secondary

colours by mixing;

iv. deduces why objects have colours;

v. analyse colours using colour filters

vi. analyse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation

to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses

**Topics**

28. Electrostatics

(i) existence of positive and negative charges

in matter

(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and

induction

(iii) electroscope

(iv) coulomb’s inverse square law electric field

and potential

(v) electric field and potential

(vi) electric discharge and lightning

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify charges;

ii. examine uses of an electronscope;

iii. apply coulomb’s square law of electrostatic to

solve problems;

iv. deduce expressions for electric field and

potential;

v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated

and iteracting charges;

vi. analyse the distribution of charges on a

conductor and how it is used in lightening

conductors.

**Topics**

29. Capacitors

(i) functions of capacitors

(ii) parallel plate capacitors

(iii) capacitance of a capacitors

(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area

separation of plates and medium between the plates.

C = 3A/d

(v) capacitors in series and parallel

(vi) energy stored in a capacitor

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine uses of capacitors;

ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors;

iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitors;

iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor

v. solve problems involving the arrangement of

capacitor;

vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors

**Topics**

30. Electric Cells

(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;

(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)

(iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron

(Nife) Lithium lon and Mercury cadmium

(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail

treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not

required

(v) arrangement of cells

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and

their corrected;

ii. compare different types of cells including solar

cell;

iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel

iron accumulator;

iv. solve problems involving series and parallel

combination of cells.

**Topics**

31. Current Electricity

(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential

difference (p.d.), current, internal

resistance of a cell and lost Volt

(ii) Ohm’s law

(iii) measurement of resistance

(iv) meter bridge

(v) resistance in series and in parallel and

their combination

(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring

emf, current and internal resistance of a

cell.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between emf, p.d., current and

internal resistant of a cell;

ii. apply Ohm’s law to solve problems;

iii. use metre bridge to calculate resistance;

iv. compute effective total resistance of both

parallel and series arrangement of resistors;

v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of

a conductor;

vi. measure emf. current and internal resistance of

a cell using the potentiometer.

**Topics**

32. Electrical Energy and Power

(i) concepts of electrical energy and power

(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and

power

(iii) electric power transmission

(iv) heating effects of electric current.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and

power to solve problems;

ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the

power station to the consumer;

iii. identify the heating effects of current and its

uses.

**Topics**

33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields

(i) natural and artificial magnets

(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel

(iii) methods of making magnets and

demagnetization

(iv) concept of magnetic field

(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet

(vi) magnetic field round a straight current

carrying conductor, circular wire and

solenoid

(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field;

north and south poles, magnetic meridian

and angle of dip and declination

(viii) flux and flux density

(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over

the earth’s surface

(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in

navigation and mineral exploration.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets

ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of

soft iron and steel;

iii. identify the various methods of making magnets

and demagnetizing magnets;

iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its

magnetism;

v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two

magnets are placed together pole to pole;

vi. determine the flux of a current carrying

conductor, circular wire and solenoid including

the polarity of the solenoid;

vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed

in the earth’s magnetic fields;

viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth’s

flux;

ix. determine the variation of earth’s magnetic

field on the earth’s surface;

x. examine the applications of the earth’s magnetic

field.

**Topics**

34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

(i) quantitative treatment of force between

two parallel current-carrying conductors

(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic

field;

(iii) the d. c. motor

(iv) electromagnets

(v) carbon microphone

(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments

(vii) conversion of galvanometers to

ammeters and voltmeter using shunts

and multipliers

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the direction of force on a current

carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand

rule;

ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces

between two parallel current-carrying

conductors using diagrams;

iii. determine the relationship between the force,

magnetic field strength, velocity and the angle

through which the charge enters the field;

iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor;

v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give

examples of its application;

vi. compare moving iron and moving coil

instruments;

vii. convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a

voltmeter.

**Topics**

35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction

(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic

induction

(ii) factors affecting induced emf

(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the

principle of conservation of energy

(iv) a.c. and d.c generators

(v) transformers

(vi) the induction coil

(b) Inductance

(i) explanation of inductance

(ii) unit of inductance

(iii) energy stored in an inductor E=1/2xI²L

(iv) application/uses of inductors

(c) Eddy Current

(i) reduction of eddy current

(ii) applications of eddy current

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction;

ii. identify factors affecting induced emf;

iii. recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates the

principle of conservation of energy;

iv. interpret the diagrammatic set up of A. C.

generators;

v. identify the types of transformer;

vi. examine principles of operation of transformers;

vii. assess the functions of an induction coil;

viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of

operation of an induction coil;

ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor;

x. recognize units of inductance;

xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series

and parallel arrangement;

xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in

an inductor;

xiii. examine the applications of inductors;

xiv. describe the method by which eddy current

losses can be reduced.

xv. determine ways by which eddy currents can be

used.

**Topics**

36. Simple A. C. Circuits

(i) explanation of a.c. current and voltage

(ii) peak and r.m.s. values

(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;

(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitorcapacitive reactance

(v) a.c source connected to an inductorinductive

reactance

(vi) series R-L-C circuits

(vii) vector diagram

(viii) reactance and impedance of alternative

quantities

(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits

(x) resonance and resonance frequency

F0 = 1/2π√LC

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify a.c. current of and d. d. voltage;

ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values

of a.c.;

iii. determine the phase difference between current

and voltage;

iv. interpret series R-L-C circuits;

v. analyse vector diagrams;

vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and

impedance;

vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is

at resonance;

viii. determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C

arrangement;

ix. determine the instantaneous power, average

power and the power factor in a. c. circuits

**Topics**

37. Conduction of Electricity Through

(a) liquids

(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte

(ii) concept of electrolysis

(iii) Faraday’s law of electrolysis

(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g

electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.

(b) gases

(i) discharge through gases (quantitative

treatment only)

(ii) application of conduction of electricity

through gases

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-

electrolytes;

ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes;

iii. apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve

problems;

iv. analyse discharge through gases;

v. determine some applications/uses of conduction

of electricity through gases.

**Topics**

38. Elementary Modern Physics

(i) models of the atom and their limitations

(ii) elementary structure of the atom;

(iii) energy levels and spectra

(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;

(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential

(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and

photoelectric effects

(vii) simple method of production of x-rays

(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta

and gamma rays

(xiii) half-life and decay constant

(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by

fusion and fission

(xv) binding energy, mass defect and

Einstein’s Energy equation [∆E = ∆Mc2]

(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)

(xvii) electron diffraction

(xviii) the uncertainty principle

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the models of the atom and write their

limitation;

ii. describe elementary structure of the atom;

iii. differentiate between the energy levels and

spectra of atoms;

iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric

emissions;

v. apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of

photoelectric effect;

vi. calculate the stopping potential;

vii. relate some application of thermionic emission

and photoelectric effects;

viii. interpret the process involved in the

production of x-rays;p

ix identify some properties and application of

x-rays

x. analyse elementary radioactivity;

xi. distinguish between stable and unstable

nuclei;

xii. identify isotopes of an element;

xiii. compare the properties of alpha, beta and

gamma rays;

xiv. relate half-life and decay constant of a

radioactive element;

xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and

Einstein’s energy equation;

xvi. analyse wave particle duality;

xvii. solve some numerical problems based on the

uncertainty principle.

**Topics**

39. Introductory Electronics

(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors

and insulators (elementary knowledge of

band gap is required)

(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors;

(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in

rectification and transistors in amplification

(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors

(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and

transistors

(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in

rectification and transistors in amplification.

**Objectives**

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between conductors, semi-

conductors and insulators;

ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic

semiconductors;

iii. distinguish between electron and hole carriers;

iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type

semiconductor;

v. analyse diodes and transistor (detailed

characteristics of transistor not required);

vi. relate diodes to rectification and transistor to

amplification.

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